Language Meireikei

By JREF · Mar 8, 2012 · ·
  1. JREF
    The meireikei (命令形) is used as an imperative and placed at the end of the sentence as the main verb. The use of this form should be avoided since it is often quite offensive and insulting.

    手を挙げろ! Te wo age ro! Put your hands up!
    お金をくれ! O-kane wo kure! Give me your money!
    こっちへ来い! Kocchi e koi! Come here!
    死ね! Shine! Die!
    頑張れ! Ganbare! Go for it! / Keep going!

    Verbal adjectives and the meireikei

    Verbal adjectives do not have a meireikei conjugation, as you cannot order someone to be blue or small.

    The meireikei of honorific verbs

    Honorific verbs are often encountered in the meireikei conjugation. As these verbs are honorific of their own, the meireikei conjugation is neither rude nor impolite.

    これを下さい。 Kore wo kudasai. I'll have this one. (Give me this.)
    おやすみなさい。 O-yasumi nasai. Good night. (Literally: Rest!)
    いらっしゃい。 Irasshai. Come in.
    召し上がれ。 Meshi agare. Eat.

    Making the imperative more polite

    Also the polite form ~ます (-masu) can be made into an imperative. This form is often combined with the honorific verbs. This increases the politeness of the “order” even further.

    これを下さいませ。 Kore wo kudasaimase. I'll have this one. (Give me this.)
    勉強しなさいませ。 Benkyō shi nasaimase. Study! (Teacher to students.)
    いらっしゃいませ。 Irasshaimase. Come in.
    召し上がりませ。 Meshi agarimase. Eat.

    Note: The -masu form is connected to the ren’youkei, not the meireikei.

    Meireikei conjugations

    Group 2 conjugationsto eatto see
    Rentaikei食べる taberu見る miru
    Meireikei食べよ/ろtabe yo/ro見よ/ろ mi yo/ro
    Note: The meireikei conjugation of group 2 verbs is often followed by the emphatic particles よ (yo) or ろ (ro). ろ (ro) is stronger than よ (yo), so if you want to be particularly rude or forceful “ro” is your choice.

    Group 4 conjugationsto writeto buyto waitto lend
    Rentaikei書く kaku買う kau待つ matsu貸す kasu
    Meireikei書け kake買え kae待て mate貸せ kase
    Irregular verbsto doto come
    Rentaikeする suru来る kuru
    Meireikeiしよ/ろ、せよ/ろ、せい shi yo/ro, se yo/ro, sei来い koi
    Irregular conjugationsto speakto giveto do
    Rentaikei仰る ossharu下さる kudasaru為さる nasaru
    Meireikei仰い osshai下さい kudasai為さい nasai
    Irregular conjugationsthere is/are / to come / to go (living beings)there is/are (objects)
    Rentaikeiいらっしゃる irassharu御座る gozaru
    Meireikeiいらっしゃい irasshai御座い gozai

Comments

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  1. Guest
    I often hear this form in manga but never hear in real world someone use this to me^^.

    Learn Japanese Online
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