ようこそ! Welcome to JREF!

We are a community for people interested in All Things Japanese.

If you are new to the site, why not register? By doing so and being an active member you can make posts and access all site sections. You can register here and even do so using Facebook, Twitter or Google+!

  1. This site uses cookies. By continuing to use this site, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Learn More.

Language Mizenkei

By JREF, Mar 9, 2012 | |
Rating:
5/5,
  1. JREF
    The mizenkei conjugation (未然形) is used for forming negative forms, subjunctive forms, causative forms and passive forms.

    Mizenkei conjugations

    Group 2 conjugationsto eatto see
    Rentaikei食べる taberu見る miru
    Mizenkei食べ tabe見 mi
    Group 4 conjugationsto writeto buyto waitto lend
    Rentaikei書く kaku買う kau待つ matsu貸す kasu
    Mizenkei書か kaka買わ kawa待た mata貸さ kasa
    Irregular verbsto doto come
    Rentaikeiする suru来る kuru
    Mizenkeiし、さ、せ shi, sa, se来 ko
    Verbal adjectivesto be largeto be new
    Rentaikei大きい ōkii新しい atarashii
    Mizenkei大きく ōkiku新しく atarashiku
    Verbal adjectiveto be good (irregular)
    Rentaikeiいい/良い ii / yoi
    Mizenkeiよく/良く yoku
    Mizenkei + u (う) / + you (よう)

    The mizenkei + う (u) and the mizenkei + よう (you) are used to create the subjunctive form. With the subjunctive form you can encourage people to do something. In English this would translate as “Let’s …”, or “Shall we …?”.

    The mizenkei + う (u) is used with group 4 (or yodan katsuyou) verbs and the mizenkei + よう (you) is used with group 2 (or nidan katsuyou) verbs.

    Contractions with Group 4 verbs

    The mizenkei + う (u) of group 4 (or yodan katsuyou) verbs undergoes a contraction.

    Here’s how the contractions works:
    行か (ika = mizenkei) → 行か+う (ika+u) → 行こう (ikou = subjunctive)

    Note: Group 4 verbs where the rentaikei ends on う (u) receive the following contraction:
    買わ (kawa = mizenkei) → 買わ+う (kawa+u) → 買おう (kaou = subjunctive)

    Irregular verbs

    The subjunctive form of 来る (kuru) is formed by placing よう (you) after the mizenkei. The subjunctive form of する (suru) is formed by placing よう (you) after し (shi).

    RentaikeiSubjunctive
    買う kau買おう kaou
    書く kaku書こう kakou
    出すdasu出そう dasou
    待つ matsu待とう matou
    食べる taberu食べよう tabeyou
    見る miru見よう> miyou
    する suruしよう shiyou
    来る kuru来よう koyou
    The subjunctive of the ~ます (masu) form

    The ~ます (masu) form has an irregular subjunctive form.


    Rentaikei
    - Subjunctive
    行きます ikimasu - 行きましょう ikimashou

    チェコに行こう。
    Cheko ni ikou.
    Let’s go to the Czech Republic.

    チョコを食べよう。
    Choko wo tabeyou.
    Let’s have some chocolate.

    テレビを見ましょうか。
    Terebi wo mimashou ka.
    Shall we watch TV?

    だろう (darou) and でしょう (deshou)

    だ (da) and です (desu) are contractions of である (de aru) and でございます (de gozaimasu), and have the same contractions.

    RentaikeiSubjunctive
    である de aru であろう de arou
    だ daだろう darou
    でございます de gozaimasuでございましょう de gozaimashou
    です desuでしょう deshou
    だろう (darou) and でしょう (deshou) are, however, not subjunctive forms, but dubitative forms. They should be translated as “it probably is”. だろう (darou) and でしょう (deshou) can be combined with verbal adjectives.

    マイク君が来るでしょうね。
    Maiku-kun ga kuru deshou ne.
    Mike is coming, right?

    高いだろう。
    Takai darou.
    It must be expensive.

    寒かったでしょう。
    Samukatta deshou.
    It must have been cold.

    Mizenkei + seru (せる) / + saseru (される)

    The mizenkei + せる (seru) and the mizenkei + させる (saseru) are used to create the causative form. The causative form is translated as “let, have, or make somebody do”. This causative form cannot be combined with verbal adjectives.

    The mizenkei + せる (seru) is used with group 4 (or yodan katsuyou) verbs and the mizenkei + させる (saseru) is used with group 2 (or nidan katsuyou) verbs.

    Irregular verbs

    The causative form of 来る (kuru) is formed by placing させる (saseru) after the mizenkei. The causative form of する (suru) is formed by placing せる (seru) after さ (sa).

    RentaikeiMizenkei + (さ)せる [(sa)seru]
    買う kau買わせる kawaseru
    書く kaku書かせる kakaseru
    出す dasu出させる dasaseru
    待つ matsu待たせる mataseru
    食べる taberu食べさせる tabesaseru
    見る miru見させる misaseru
    する suruさせる saseru
    来る kuru来させる kosaseru
    When adding (さ)せる [(sa)seru], a Group 2 verb, to the mizenkei the resulting verb is also conjugated as group 2 verbs. For the correct conjugations please check the conjugations page.

    The Causative form

    The causative form is used to describe that “A” makes “B” do “C”. “A”, is then followed by the particle に (ni), “B”, who performs the actual action, is followed by the subject particle が (ga), and “C” is followed by the object particle を (wo). “B”が”A”に”C”をさせる。 (“B” ga “A” ni “C” wo saseru.)

    私が友達に宿題をチェックさせた。
    Watashi ga tomodachi ni shukudai wo chekku saseta.
    My friend let me check his homework.
    My friend had me check his homework.
    My friend made me check his homework.

    Mizenkei + (さ)せられる [(sa)serareru]

    The mizenkei + させる (saseru) can also be combined with the passive form られる (rareru). This combination can have two functions:

    • Being forced to do something.
    • Extremely humble form (used when speaking to the emperor or to gods).

    私が母に納豆を食べさせられた。
    Watashi ga haha ni nattou wo tabesaserareta.
    I was made to eat natto by my mother. / I was forced to eat natto by my mother.

    お天皇様がいらっしゃらせられてくださいませんでしょうか。br />
    O-Tennou-sama ga irassharaserarete kudasaimasen deshou ka.
    Won’t Your Majesty The Emperor please come over?

    Mizenkei + zu (ず)

    The mizenkei +ず (zu) is the classical negative, and sounds very archaic.

    知らず。 (Shirazu.)
    I don’t know.

    The Mizenkei + ずに (zu ni)

    When the mizenkei + ず (zu) is followed by the particle に (ni) it means “without doing”. This form is still often used in modern Japanese. This form can only be used with verbs, not with verbal adjectives.

    食べずに来ました。
    Tabezu ni kimashita.
    I came without having eaten.

    Irregular verbs

    The mizenkei + ず (zu) of する (suru) is formed by placing ず (zu) after the せ (se) mizenkei conjugation. 来る (kuru) behaves normally. The mizenkei + ず (zu) of ある (aru) is formed by simply placing ず (zu) after the mizenkei conjugation: あらず (arazu).

    RentaikeiMizenkei + ず (zu)
    ある aruあらず arazu
    買う kau買わず kawazu
    書く kaku書かず kakazu
    出す dasu出さず dasazu
    待つ matsu待たず matazu
    食べる taberu食べず tabezu
    見る miru見ず mizu
    する suruせず sezu
    来る kuru来ず kozu
    Mizenkei +n (ん) / + nai (ない)

    The mizenkei + ない (nai) is the negative form. ない (nai) is a verbal adjective. For its correct conjugations please check the conjugations page. In the spoken language ない (nai) after verbs is sometimes abbreviated to ん (n).

    雨が降らない。
    Ame ga furanai.
    It isn’t raining.

    バスが高くないです。
    Basu ga takakunai desu.
    The bus is not expensive.

    分からん。
    Wakaran.
    I don’t understand.

    PositiveNegative
    書く kaku書かない kakanai
    買う kau買わない kawanai
    売る uru売らない uranai
    入る hairu入らない hairanai
    いる iruいない inai
    食べる taberu食べない tabenai
    出る deru出ない denai
    見る miru見ない minai
    する suruしない shinai
    来る kuru来ない konai
    高い takai高くない takakunai
    難しい muzukashii難しくない muzukashikunai
    Exceptions are the verb ある (aru), である (de aru) and its variations, and the polite verb ます (masu).

    ある (aru), meaning “there are” (of inanimate objects), has as negative form ない (nai) and not あらない (aranai).

    である (de aru), meaning “to be”, and its variations だ (da) and です (desu) have as negative form ではない(です) (de wa nai (desu)) or ではありません (de wa arimasen). では (de wa) is sometimes contracted to じゃ (ja), resulting in じゃない(です) (ja nai (desu)) or じゃありません (ja arimasen).

    ます (masu) has as negative form ません (masen). This form stems from classical Japanese where the classical negative verb ぬ (nu) was placed after the izenkei conjugation. ません (masen) is placed after the ren’youkei conjugation, the same as ます (masu) is.

    PositiveNegative
    ある aruない nai
    である de aruではない de wa nai
    だ daじゃない ja nai
    あります arimasuありません arimasen
    -ないです nai desu
    書きます kakimasu書きません kakimasen
    -書かないですkakanai desu
    食べます tabemasu食べません tabemasen
    -食べないです tabenai desu
    来ます kimasu来ませんkimasen
    -来ないです konai desu
    であります / です de arimasu / desuではありません de wa arimasen
    -ではないです de wa nai desu
    -じゃありません ja arimasen
    -じゃないです ja nai desu
    高いです takai desu高くないです takakunai desu
    難しいです muzukashii desu難しくないです muzukashikunai desu
    Mizenkei + ないで (nai de)

    This construction is used to request someone not to do something.

    それをしないで。
    Sore wo shinai de.
    Please don’t do that.

    鉛筆で書かないでください。
    Enpitsu de kakanai de kudasai.
    Please don’t write with a pencil.

    Various forms

    You may also encounter ない (nai) in different contractions.

    なくて (nakute):the て (te) form.
    なかった (nakatta): the た (ta) form or past tense
    なさそう (nasasou): the ren’youkei + そう (sou)

    Mizenkei + reru (れる) / + rareru (られる)

    The mizenkei + れる (reru) and the mizenkei + られる (rareru) are used to create the passive form. The passive form is translated as “being done”. This passive form cannot be combined with verbal adjectives.

    The passive form has several functions. It can be used as a
    • Passive form
    • Passive form of inconvenience (迷惑の受身)
    • Polite form
    • Potential form
    The mizenkei + れる (reru) is used with Group 4 (or yodan katsuyou) verbs and the mizenkei + られる (rareru) is used with group 2 (or nidan katsuyou) verbs. In the spoken language the mizenkei + れる (reru) is sometimes also used with Group 2 (or nidan katsuyou) verbs. This form is officially grammatically incorrect but you may encounter it on occasion.

    Irregular verbs

    The passive form of 来る (kuru) is formed by placing られる (rareru) after the mizenkei. The passive form of する (suru) is formed by placing れる (reru) after さ (sa) or られる (rareru) after せ (se).

    RentaikeiMizenkei + (ら)れる [(ra)reru]
    買う kau買われる kawareru
    書く kaku書かれる kakareru
    出す dasu出される dasareru
    待つ matsu待たれる matareru
    食べる taberu食べられる taberareru
    -(食べれる) (tabereru)
    見る miru見られる mirareru
    -(見れる) (mireru)
    する suruされる sareru
    -せられる serareru
    来る kuru来られる korareru
    -(来れる) (koreru)
    When adding (ら)れる [(ra)reru], which is a Group 2 verb, to the mizenkei conjugation, the resulting verb is also conjugated as a Group 2 verb. For the correct conjugations please check the conjugations page.

    ソニーのCDプレーヤーは中国で作られます。
    Sonii no CD pureeyaa wa chuugoku de tsukuraremasu.
    Sony CD-players are made in China.

    蚊に刺された。
    Ka ni sasareta.
    I’ve been bitten by a mosquito.

    The Passive form

    The passive form is used to describe that “A” is being done by “B”. “A” is followed by the subject particle が (ga), and “B” is followed by the particle に (ni).

    手紙が田中さんに書かれました。
    Tegami ga Tanaka-san ni kakaremashita.
    The letter was written by Mr. Tanaka.

    田中さんが手紙を書きました。
    Tanaka-san ga tegami wo kakimashita.
    Mr. Tanaka wrote the letter.

    The Passive form of inconvenience (迷惑の受身 / meiwaku no ukemi)

    Like the passive form, the passive form of inconvenience is used to describe that “A” is being done by “B”, but with the connotation that what happened was unpleasant. In this form “A” is followed by the object particle を (wo), and “B” is followe by the particle に (ni). This form can often be translated without having the passive form in the English translation.

    宿題を犬に食べられました。 (Shukudai wo inu ni taberaremashita.)
    The dog ate my homework.

    The Polite form

    The polite form maintains the normal construction a normal sentence would. This form is used to heighten the politeness level towards the person you are talking to.

    あなたがもう食事を食べられましたか。
    Anata ga mou shokuji wo taberaremashita ka.
    Have you had dinner yet?

    明日、来られますか。
    Ashita, koraremasu ka.
    Will you come by tomorrow?

    The Potential form

    The potential form is constructed in the same way as the normal passive form, but the grammatical subject of the sentence is usually separated by the particle は (wa). This form is often used to create a potential form from group 2 (or nidan katsuyou) verbs.

    彼は直美ちゃんのことが忘れられない。
    Kare wa Naomi-chan no koto ga wasurerarenai.
    He can’t stop thinking about Naomi.

    Summary:

    “A”が”B”にされます。
    “A” ga “B” ni saremasu.
    “A” is being done by “B”. (passive form)

    “A”を”B”にされます。
    “A” wo “B” ni saremasu.
    “B” does “A” (and I am suffering because of it). (passive form of inconvenience)

    “A”が”B”をされます。
    “A” ga “B” wo saremasu.
    “A” does “B”. (polite form)

    “A”は”B”がされます。
    “A” wa “B” ga saremasu.
    “A” can do “B”. (potential form)

Comments

In order to add your comment please sign up and become a member of JREF through the registration form at the top right of the page; you can also sign up under your Facebook, Twitter, or Google+ account.