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TYJ Space-time

By Takasugi, May 22, 2017 | |
  1. Takasugi
    8.6. Space-time

    8.6.1. Directions

    All of the direction words in Japanese are nouns, while the English words up and down are not nouns.

    -うえ
    u e
    up, upper
    -
    ひだり
    hi da ri
    left
    -みぎ
    mi gi
    right
    -した
    si ta
    down, lower
    -

    まえうしる
    ma e
    forward
    u si ro
    backward

    -きた
    ki ta
    north
    -
    にし
    ni si
    west
    -ひがし
    hi ga si
    east
    -みなみ
    mi na mi
    south
    -

    8.6.2. Temporal nouns

    I have written that every noun in a Japanese sentence is marked by a postposition, but temporal nouns, which stand for time relative to now, are the exceptions. You don't have to add a postposition when you use them as an adverb. It is the same as in English, because you don't use any preposition for the temporal nouns such as yesterday and today.

    OffsetDayYear
    -2おととい
    o to to i
    the day before yesterday
    おととし
    o to to si
    the year before last
    -1きのう
    ki
    yesterday
    きょねん
    kyo ne n
    last year
    0きょう
    kyô
    today
    ことし
    ko to si
    this year
    +1あした
    a si ta
    tomorrow
    らいねん
    ra i ne n
    next year
    +2あさって
    a sa t te
    the day after tomorrow
    さらいねん
    sa ra i ne n
    the year after next
    +3しあさって
    a sa t te
    the day after tomorrow
    -
    Note: The noun とし "tosi" means year. The prefix らい "rai" means coming.


    OffsetMonthWeek
    -2せんせんげつ
    se n se n ge tu
    the month before last
    せんせんしゅう
    se n se n syû
    the week before last
    -1せんげつ
    se n ge tu
    last month
    せんしゅう
    se n syû
    last week
    0こんげつ
    ko n ge tu
    this month
    こんしゅう
    ko n syû
    this week
    +1らいげつ
    ra i ge tu
    next month
    らいしゅう
    ra i syû
    next week
    +2さらいげつ
    sa ra i ge tu
    the month after next
    さらいしゅう
    sa ra i syû
    the week after next

    Note: The suffix げつ "getu" means month, and the noun しゅう "syû" means week. The prefix せん "sen" means previous. The prefix こん "kon" means current.

    Example:

    Kana:おとといてんぷらをたべた。
    Romanization:O to to i te m pu ra o ta be ta .
    Structure:(adverb, the day before yesterday) (noun, tempura) (accusative marker) (verb, ate)
    Meaning:I ate tempura the day before yesterday.

    Kana:きのうえいがをみた。
    Romanization:Ki nô e i ga o mi ta .
    Structure:(adverb, yesterday) (noun, movie) (accusative marker) (verb, saw)
    Meaning:I saw a movie yesterday.

    In both of the sentences, temporal nouns work as adverbs.


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    About Author

    Takasugi
    My name is TAKASUGI Shinji. TAKASUGI is my family name, and Shinji is my given name; a family name is placed before a given name in Japan, as in other Asian nations. My family name is capitalized to avoid misunderstanding.

    I have been living in Yokohama since I was born. Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan, which is just 30 kilometers away from the biggest city Tôkyô. It takes 30 minutes to go by train from home to Shibuya, which is the hottest town now in Tôkyô.

    I work as a display engineer.

    One of my hobbies is creating things with computers; creating programs, computer graphics and web pages is the thing I spent a lot of time doing. I am also interested in a wide range of sciences, and linguistics is my favorite. I like English and I like using it, but my focus is mainly on Japanese, which is my native language. I'm proud of knowing the language, and the difference between English and Japanese has been fascinating me. I have been thinking whether I can introduce it to people outside of Japan. My attempt of introducing Japanese with some Java applets has had more than 1 million visitors.


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