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Featured How do you use "must" or "have to" in Japanese?

Discussion in 'Learning Japanese' started by Ikumia, Oct 12, 2017.

  1. Ikumia

    Ikumia 後輩

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    I am very unsure on how to use "must" or "have to". What is the sentence structure?
    I also have been trying to figure out how to say:
    "You (must/have to) wear a collared shirt and also (must/have to) wear long pants."

    I'd appreciate the help. Thank you!
     
  2. user46182

    user46182 後輩

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    I screwed up really bad. Sorry. I am looking for the delete button right now.

    Rats! Can an admin, or somebody delete my post. Please.
     
  3. Ikumia

    Ikumia 後輩

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    It's okay! I will also take your advice and apply it to future writing assignments. Although English is my first language, I am not good at it. Thank you!
     
  4. Toritoribe

    Toritoribe 禁漁期
    Staff Member Moderator

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  5. Ronan Bell

    Ronan Bell Registered

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    The way to say must/have to involves a negative conditional. There are three choices: the ば conditional, the と conditional, and ては for this grammar. These are followed by either いけない, ならない, orだめ.
    So, for example, we can have, etc:

    [Sentence] なければいけない。 = I must do [Sentence].

    [Sentence] なくてはいけない。 = I must do [Sentence].

    [Sentence]なくてはならない。 = I must do [Sentence].

    [Sentence] ないとだめ。 = I must do [Sentence].

    仕事に行かなければいけない。  must go to work.
                   (=If
    doesn’t go to work, it’s no good.)
    部屋を掃除しなくてはならない。 I have to clean my room.

    The difference between each ending is in formality: なくては is usually used in writing, and the other two are used in speech, but ないと is more casual than なければ. And the formality of the other endings is ならない > いけない > だめ, with だめ being most casual.

    So your example sentence would be
    襟付きのシャツも長いズボンも着用しなければなりません。 
     
  6. Toritoribe

    Toritoribe 禁漁期
    Staff Member Moderator

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    The following thread, especially this post might be somewhat helpful to understand the difference among those and some other expressions for "must/have to".
    Have to | Japan Forum
     
  7. Ikumia

    Ikumia 後輩

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    ありがとうございます。
     
  8. Ikumia

    Ikumia 後輩

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    Thank you! This helped out a lot!
     

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